Allan Kardec (Hippolyte Léon Dénizard Rivail) (1804-1869)
No centralized headquarters
include Allan Kardec Educational Society, United States Spiritist Council, International Spiritist Council, Conselho Espírita Internacional, Federação Espírita Brasileira
include The Spirits’ Book, The Mediums’ Book, The Gospel According to Spiritism, The Genesis, Heaven and Hell (all by Kardec)
include La Revista Espírita
Kardec is known as the "codifier" (or systematizer) of spiritism, based on data gathered through mediumistic contacts. Central to Kardecist teaching are reincarnation and works of charity as a means of spiritual advancement.
Some spiritists follow the teachings of Jean-Baptiste Roustaing (author of The Four Gospels), who promoted a somewhat more "Christian" version of spiritism.
Adherents distinguish between their system of doctrine ("spiritism") and other mediumistic movements ("spiritualism"). One of Brazil’s most famous Kardecist mediums, Chico Xavier, is said to be one of the bestselling authors of the 20th century. Zé Arigó, the famed psychic healer known as "surgeon of the rusty knife," was reputed to be a Kardecist medium.
Alemania, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Bélgica, Bolivia, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dinamarca, Ecuador, El Salvador, España, Estados Unidos, Francia, Guatemala, Honduras, Italia, Japón, México, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, Países Bajos, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Portugal, Reino Unido, Suecia, Suiza, Uruguay, Venezuela
Brazil has perhaps the largest and most influential Kardecist movement in the world, though an overall majority of active adherents are spread across Latin America.
include Bulgarian, Chinese, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish